Obesity occurs when energy intake is higher than the energy spent in the body metabolism. It also occurs due to unstable eating habits, physical changes, and even genes. When excess calories are taken but not converted into energy, they accumulate to be called fat in body. The most common outcome of obesity is increase in the mass of fatty tissue and an increased production of fat cells at cellular and metabolic level.
The health risks associated with fat or obesity are at a steep increase. Obesity is not only limited to adults, but spans from children to fully grown adults.
Here are the top 10 health problems associated with obesity.
10. Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a condition where the blood glucose level is higher than normal. Sugar present in the food is broken down to the metabolite level to be used to generate energy. The hormone, Insulin converts this glucose into energy. Under normal circumstances, insulin breaks down the glucose into energy. In type -2 Diabetes, the cells do not use insulin as compared to a healthy body. The body in turn starts generating a higher amount of insulin. There comes a time when the body is incapable of making more insulin and at that it cause obesity. Type – 2 Diabetes is one of the leading causes of early deaths. Diabetes affects around 200 million people around the world. Out of these, almost two-thirds of men and three-quarters of women have excess body fat. Diabetes not only affects children, but also the adults causing the metabolic and endocrine systems to deteriorate.
9. Musculoskeletal Problems
This condition arises when excessive weight of the body puts pressure on joints, leading to wear and tear of joint-tissue. It severely affects children with developing skeletal system, having obesity as a major concern. The person with musculoskeletal problems have restricted activity as climbing stairs, walking and picking up weights. The spine gets affected and the patients report an increase in lower back pain. The foot joint and ankle problems succeeds in obese people. Joints in the body, including knee, spine are all affected due to obesity.
8. Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVD) Risks
Obese adults and children are prone to CVD, which includes increase in cholesterol level, hypertension, unstable body glucose level. The risk of having hypertension in adults increases if obesity was a concern at childhood. Increase in weight causes arteries to get thinner increasing the risk of high blood pressure.
7. Hampered Circulatory System
Circulation of blood is hampered due to increase in the fatty tissue inside the nerves. The increase in the fat leads to decrease in the area of blood circulation (as the fat accumulates at the lining of the nerves) leading to stroke and even contribute to the renal failure. As BMI increases, the risk of hypertension increases. Poor circulation of blood and other nutrients can cause pulmonary embolism.
Obese people are vulnerable to the risk of several cancers, including endometrial cancer. Women are more prone to Breast cancer and colon cancer, causing threat to obese people. Weight cycling may also pose risk to develop cancer. People with higher insulin helps cancer cells to grow. Thus, a lower weight is preferred to cancer patients and cancer survivors.
5. Reproductive and urological problems
Reproductive health is not far from risk due to obesity. The high fat contained in the body is a major cause of stress related inconvenience in women. Also, obese women faces menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Maternal obesity also poses a serious threat both to the mother and the foetus. Obese men are at a higher risk of erectile dysfunction.
4. Fatty Liver
Otherwise called as Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), refers to the condition that arises due to fat cell accumulation in the liver. Liver and kidney then becomes the major area to be affected. As obesity is prevailing in most of the people around the world, similarly is NAFLD, with least or no symptoms.
3. Heart Disease
Heart Disease is a condition where the oxygen-supplying arteries are blocked from supplying blood to all parts of the body, due to accumulating of fatty tissue around the arteries. The risk of the diseases increases with the increase in the BMI. Obesity can even lead to heart failure, a condition in which the heart is not able to pump blood through arteries, causing it to fail. Increased fat content in heart can cause chest pain and even heart attacks. As circumference of the arteries decrease, the heart have to pump more, thus leading to high blood pressure and failing which can cause stroke and death.
2. Hampered Sleep Apnoea
More than 50% of obese children and adolescent face abnormal sleep conditions. In Sleep Apnoea,the sleeping person suffer light breaths and even pauses. It usually occur due to fat accumulation which makes it difficult to breathe freely during sleep. The person may even suffer from Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) where the amount of oxygen decreases in blood. It poses serious health problems and may even lead to death.
1. Abnormal Blood Fats
One is more vulnerable to abnormal levels of blood fat, if is overweight or obese. These are the lipids in the blood that defines the metabolism process. The cholesterol contained in the blood are maintained and sent through liver to intestines. These blood fats are fatty acids and cholesterol, either absorbed in intestinal or cellular level. The increase in lipids or cholesterol causes instability of blood fats. The amount of cholesterol increase can lead you to bad health causing heart related diseases. No exercise or excessive fat content in food lead you to abnormal fat in blood. There are no symptoms or no signs but changing your lifestyle can be a great help.
There are many other risks, including gall bladder disease, dementia, osteoarthritis apart from various heart diseases.